Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

Alternative investments tend to provide to the investor a platform that enables earning of money with much fewer risks involvedand a higher ROI (return on investment). It can also be referred to as investments in hedge funds however it is all strategy related. Some alternative investment strategies may includeconvertible arbitrage, fixed income arbitrage, short bias and equity of market neutral. In most cases financial institutions are the holders of the alternative investments. Although these investments are controversial because of the lack of regulation, still economic analyst gives their views on them. They are also subject to scrutiny by politicians and sometimes lack proper disclosure.

The best thing about alternative investments is the rate of very higher returns than the traditional ones. There are many investment plans like giving by AIM (Alternative Investment Market). Established in 90s this platform has turned out to be more useful than the former Unlisted Securities Market, giving investors a chance to gain some profit and pool in the capital. AIM works for the small investors who are potentially not eligible to be listed in the stocks and gives them a free hand with respect to rules and regulations. Although there are some regulations but they do not torture the investor to increase their capital. The most important feature of AIM is that is does not stop investors by putting a check to the number of shares they can issue in the market. This facility gives investors a chance to increase their ratio in the market without much struggle. In the past few years it has also been seen that some investors with their proper time management and skills have managed to make way to enter the main market after successful results achieved in AIM. The London Stock Market has is the proud founder of AIM and had proved to be a rising star in alternative investments.

It is important to understand that investments are risky therefore wherever you invest in something it is important that care shall be taken. It must also be kept in mind that you are sure that you understand the business you are actually investing in. According to experts investing in your own business or some business that you understand is the key to success. Secondly, the management must be on its toes to make sure that a proper check is being kept on where the expenses are being done. Good investments can be done only if it is realized that the results are not hard to achieve if proper measures are taken.

Alternative Investments only require extra care as they are more risky. For instance if you are investing in some art items, you must be sure that you are actually trying to invest in the original one. To be successful in alternative investments it must be made sure that you understand what a man of ordinary diligence would do in similar circumstances.

Here is a short summary of the MSc International Banking and Financial Studies masters degree course offered by the Management School at the University of Southampton to help would-be students to decide whether it is the course for them.

This International Banking and Financial Studies masters course aims to develop students’ existing skills through advanced study in the areas of banking and finance, with a particular emphasis on the international context in which these activities occur.

The International Banking and Financial Studies masters programme gives you a coherent theoretical framework for the various subject areas, although the emphasis throughout is on the practical application of financial techniques in the modern financial services environment.

Southampton Management School has an excellent international reputation for the analytical study of management and business. Studying the MSc International Banking and Financial Studies masters programme will introduce you to new concepts and knowledge, which can make all the difference in the job market.

At the Management School, all our degrees are taught by research-active academics who are also directly tackling business challenges outside the seminar room and putting theory into practice every day.

The International Banking and Financial Studies masters degree course is led by Dr. Gerhard Kling, who is a senior lecturer in Finance at the University of Southamptons Management School.

Gerhard received his PhD in Economics from the University of Tuebingen (Germany) and joined Utrecht University (The Netherlands) as Assistant Professor of Finance and Financial Markets (2004-2006).

In 2006, he went into the private sector and worked as Practice Specialist in Corporate Finance & Banking (McKinsey & Company, Germany) (2006-2007). Then he returned into academia and joined Bristol Business School (UWE, UK) as Senior Lecturer in Strategy (2007-2009).

In 2009, Gerhard was promoted to a Principal Lecturer in Strategy and Operations Management (2009-2010). On 1st October 2010 he joined the University of Southampton as a Senior Lecturer in Finance.
Southampton Management School has an excellent international reputation for the analytical study of management and business. Studying an MSc Management masters degree, or other postgraduate option, will introduce you to new concepts and knowledge, which can make all the difference in the job market.
All our degrees are taught by research-active academics who are also directly tackling business challenges outside the seminar room and put theory into practice every day.

To find out more about this International Banking and Financial Studies masters degree go to

Why do you need a market data API in order to display financial data on your website? An API is an Application Programming Interface, an essential part of the interactivity of Web 2.0. A programming interface is like a foreign language translator-It allows one computer operating on one system to talk to another computer operating on another system. Imagine how complex this can be when computer systems are communicating with market data. When you are providing financial information on your website for your visitors, APIs are necessary to display all but static, non-changing information.

Look for a market data solutions provider that can offer several different code-based APIs or SDKs (Software Development Kits) to ensure that you can connect with data feeds and tickers for real-time, delayed, end of day, and historical information. Having access to a .Net, Java, or COM/Win32 API will make this communication more easeful. APIs should have both a server side component as well as a client-side component.

Sample code should be provided with source code available for your tech team.

Consult with your tech team first to determine whether your system would most easily connect to a .NET, Java, or COM/Win32 API. Then find the market data solution firm that can provide the appropriate API for your system. If you need a .NET API to receive market data, make sure it is written in fully manageable C# code and built within a .NET 2.0 framework. If it is a Java API that you need, of course, make sure it is written in pure Java. No external native libraries will be needed. The Legacy COM/WIN32 API should be available from your market data solutions firm if your system requires this type of interface.

If this all sounds like a lot of mumbo jumbo to you, just make sure that the market data solutions company that you select offers complete code samples, documentation, and complete customized tech support, regardless of the market data API available. Broadcast feeds should come in a format that compresses and consolidates direct feeds from any exchange. Check to be certain that they offer financial data feeds in raw or original exchange format, utilizing HTTP transfer in XML, CSV, and FTP. And most importantly, make sure that the data you receive is the most timely, accurate data available. Your data solutions firm must provide reliable figures, with transactions, inserts, and corrections reported as they are reported by the exchanges. Visit, where you’ll find more information about each marketdata API available and how to get started on posting your own white-label financial data feed on your company’s website.

Colin Snider lives in New Orleans, Louisiana. He is a promoter for local venues, including concert venues and clubs, in the city. Football is his favorite sport and he is a hardcore Saints fan. He also enjoys trading and investing in the stock market and relies of end of day data to make financial decisions

Home loan modification is a term used to determine a process that you can go through whenever you are burdened with paying off your mortgage. This process is used by a lot of people, because it allows them to modify the terms of their mortgage, making it favorable for both the lender and debtor.

Believe it or not, there are millions of property owners who are having problems when dealing with their mortgage. Some people even resort to filing bankruptcy, which should only be used when all available methods have failed. Home loan modification is rapidly becoming popular among mortgage holders, because it helps them ease the terms of their mortgage without damaging their reputation as debtors.

Applying for a home loan modification has a lot of benefits like reducing the interest rates that are being charged to you monthly, reducing your principal balance, you can also change the terms from adjustable mortgage to a fixed mortgage rate, and you can ultimately increase the duration of your loan.

If you are going to ask a bank, they will never advise you to apply for a home loan modification due to obvious reasons – they will earn a lot less if you are paying under a modified term compared to paying for your original mortgage terms. This is also the reason why there are a lot of mortgage holders who are not familiar with this method.

A typical modified loan takes 30-90 days to complete and make sure that you are paying all obligations during that time. This will slightly increase your chances of getting the loan modification approved. You also need to keep all the documents and statements that you have received from your lender because these documents are often required when applying for a modified loan.

If you are looking for a company that will help you apply for a mortgage modification, then you can start searching the Internet. There are a lot of companies who are willing to help people like you to ease the burdens of their mortgages. Just make sure that you pick the right company. Always look for the testimonials and feedback from past clients to determine whether a particular company is really capable of helping you with your mortgage.

For detailed facts and essential tips about how you can be approved for a loan modification, visit this simple, easy to understand loan modification guide and resource:

With so many people facing foreclosure today, thousands of loan modification companies have emerged offering a financial lifeline. Unfortunately, most demand big upfront fees, are not sufficiently educated in the industry to actually help, and may hurt by wasting valuable time and effort, or many companies (about 75%) are in the business to scam people. As stated by Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan–If you are struggling to make your mortgage payments, or if you are facing foreclosure, stay away from anyone who says that they will save your home for money upfront-.


Loss Mitigation Specialist C. Thompson Sr (Nationwide Assistance, Clermont, FLA), has determined several tale tale signs of scamming by these companies:

Charges a huge upfront fee- the purpose of the fee is to contact the lender to ask for a loan modification. But, if turned down, only half the fee or none of the fee is returned. In these cases, there should be a money back guarantee.

Will not explain the purpose of the fee- all services should be explained and all questions answered.

Is not interested in your circumstances- may not have your best interest at heart.

Does not stop the foreclosure proceedings during the negotiation.

Will accept the first proposal from the lender, which may not suit your circumstances.

A virtual company-no real office- may not be a real company.

Too good to be true- promises a fantastic interest rate or/and an exact principle reduction amount, without consulting the lender. No promises can be made without negtiating with the lender.

No approval process-An approval process should be the first step in the modification process, before a fee is paid. The process should not include credit qualification, and approval should not be made on the first phone call.

Not a member of the Better Business Bureau.-they are not a leader in the industry.

Fortunately, you can avoid these scams. There are other avenues to pursue if you need assistance with your urgent mortgage problems. Consider a non-profit agency that will assist you without charging a fee, or a real estate licensee and an attorney who will work and allow payment after the work is completed. You can also obtain free advice and consultation for your refinance, loan modification and foreclosure needs through several government agencies:

Hope NOW –


California Department of Real Estate –

Making Home Affordable-

The information presented above applies to home refinancing and loan modification abuse. However, if you are seriously looking to improve your finances in general, visit to find out more.

How technology has affected the financial department in organisations?
Theres no doubt that new cloud technology has had an incredible impact on todays workplaces, particularly those who work in, or are involved with the financial aspects of an organisation. Over the last few decades, new and different technology has been injected into the workplace at an ever increasing rate. One of these is the use of the mobile device.

Smart phones, netbooks, iPads and other such tablets detach us from our desks and give us the freedom to roam with our work. Imagine using a cloud-based accounting and finance system. This would allow you to review budgets or produce financial reports from the garden, a taxi, or even on holiday. Having access to your financial data and information, whenever is suitable for you and wherever you are, cant be a bad thing for business.

Managing the accounting and finance function on the go
Most businesses have adopted mobile technology in some way or another, as its hard to ignore the lure of the high mobility and other strengths that come with cloud computing, particularly for accounting and finance professions. Smart phones started this revolution, and they are now an important device for the hard working professional. But now, the tablet device has enhanced our mobile experience even more. Theres more mobility offered than we get with laptops, and the screen is bigger than you get with smart phones, making it all the more easier to view and analyse your financial budgets, reports, expenditure, etc

Tablets enhance user experience
How many times have you been in a finance or board meeting and someone has requested some information that you can only provide once youre back at your desk? Well, with a tablet or any mobile device its right at your fingertips. It can be discussed straightaway, a decision taken and communicated to the business without you leaving your meeting.

With easy access to email, calendar and contacts built in to most devices, the most simple business functions are now easy to get up and running in a few easy steps. Add on many of the freely available apps and you have a fully functioning business tool.

Where next?
All mobile devices are tools that should ultimately enable, not disable business. So if you find a cloud-based accounting and finance system that allows you to work on the go, and allow other people access to the information they need without needing your help, then the way organisations are run can change for the better.

Apart from losing your property, a foreclosure may also mean a negative impact on your credit score. How do you prevent this from happening? Sometimes, financial problems may lead to failure in mortgage payments that inadvertently lead to foreclosure. In such a situation, a mortgage modification may be an effective solution.

How do you approach this? It is necessary to get advice from a real estate attorney to handle it properly. He/she would have in-depth knowledge of the Illinois laws relevant to the matter. The following tips could help if you are trying to get a modification to the mortgage plan.

Plan every detail. Initially, this was available for homeowners in default, for a period of 90 days. However, nowadays, this is not a requirement. If your financial situation seems grim, it is better to plan even before you actually default on your loan. This gives you enough time to prepare for it.

Get legal advice. Consulting a real estate attorney in Chicago can be of immense help. A legal professional specializing in loan modification may help you with the planning and negotiation. Moreover, he/she could also help you find out the actual lender, whom you have to negotiate with to avoid foreclosure.

Gather all relevant documents. You would need to provide your lender adequate details pertaining to your financial situation, especially the income and expense details. Therefore, you need to gather documents like your pay-stubs, income tax return, savings and other assets, second mortgage or other credit and so on.

Prepare the hardship letter. This helps the lender understand the reason you got into the financial mess. Explain the details of your situation, and the reasons for it, in simple and lucid terms. Do not exaggerate or fabricate. Do not write a very long letter (no lender would have the patience of going through a five page letter).

Negotiate with patience. You can do it on your own if you have enough knowledge and experience. Get your attorney for help if you are not very confident. Do not settle for an amount that you would be unable to pay. Negotiate with the lender in the presence of your attorney. Still better, let the attorney do it on your behalf.

Finally, do not opt for an attorney who asks for upfront fees. You may be in for a shock as many such services are fraudulent. Choose a reputed and reliable legal advisor to prevent the foreclosure.

If you have come across any legal issues and do not know what to do and whom to ask, exploit this Houston Lawyer Directory to hire a professional lawyer to deal with your case.

With many headwinds threatening to send the US back into a recession, many smart investors are focusing their portfolios on only the income generating stocks and commodities (especially precious metals) that still have room to run.

Many astute economists now admit that the hangover from the financial crisis is still playing out and while many people are panicking and losing money there are many areas of growth out there at the moment. Investors just need to look past all the doom and gloom that is out there and being written in the papers and economic journals.

The 7 best ways to protect yourself from the coming economic troubles include:

1) Focus your efforts on High quality businesses and stocks that have A-Type balance sheets and strong yields.

2) Stocks that only provide reliable dividends and have a proven track record in a weak economic environment.

3) Choosing stocks and bonds that show low debt to equities ratios and high liquid asset ratios currently. This is really companies with good balance sheets and no heavy debts lingering from the financial crisis.

4) Choosing the hard assets such as oil and gas royalties, and similar real estate investments with a long term focus on various income streams.

5) Choosing sectors and companies that have high variable costs, and low risk entries such as utilities, consumers staples and especially health care services.

6) Choosing areas such as high growth potential in the Alternative / Clean energy sectors. Or also sectors that are not heavily reliant on bullish equities markets and volatile market swings.

7) Subscribe to the free trends alert with all the latest and greatest tips for investing in a poor economy at with regular updates from some of the best investing minds and forecasters in the world.

The best thing about a weak economic environment is that good opportunities stick out like a sore thumb. You just have to be on the lookout for them. Do not think that there are limited opportunities out there at the moment. There is an era of very aggressive growth coming when the US recovers from this credit crisis hangover. The best time to ride the coat tails of this booming period is before it happens. That time is right now, when everything is cheap and flat lining.

The best bet is to never put all your eggs in one basket. There are always opportunities out there, and no one ever made lots of money but not diversifying. Investment diversification will be your friend in the next few years at the US and economic situation start to get better.

When it comes to buy a Subway Franchise, the first think which clicks in the mind is that how you will go to finance it?. Buying a Franchise or coming in the food chain business involves various things like setting up the restaurant, arranging for the shop fitters to fit out the shop accordingly, kitting it out with all the required catering equipment, fitting all the tables and chairs, and many more. That is the reason people usually look for a financer before buying a Subway Franchise. By having a handsome amount in their hand theyll be able to effectively budget their monthly outgoings through a monthly finance package to operate their business immediately with all the equipment they need.

Own a Subway Franchise only by going through the process of financing, as by doing this you are keeping your available capital in the bank, leaving it available for other important business expenditures. It will provide you liquid flow of cash to run the day-to-day business activities. You cant imagine how easily youll get back your return on investment easier by opting to tailored franchise finance package. It will benefit you by lending maximum money to your bank account each month on your lease agreement.

No one can deny the popularity of Subway, not because their unique chain of restaurants but for the quality they provide with mouth watering sandwiches. There is hardly any need to mention that their high profile advertising campaigns and their ongoing popularity and excellent menus are certainly attracting potential franchisees from all over the world. They all want to open their own Subway franchise and want to take a part in the active race to success. If you think about it you almost get it, enormous flexible finance packages on the market are available. It allows you to build in the franchise fee with all useful equipment that goes into the Subway restaurant.

Fulfill your desire to owe a business related of fast food industry by buying a subway franchise. This is the only platform where food have both moderate as well as healthy flavor